To better understand the role of pain and pain medication in the life of prime age men who are neither working nor looking for work, the Survey Research Center at Princeton University conducted a brief online survey of a sample of men age 25–54 using an Internet panel provided by Survey Sampling, Inc. (SSI). The first wave of the survey was conducted over the period September 30, 2016, to October 2, 2016. The results of this survey underscore the role of pain in the lives of nonworking men, and the widespread use of prescription pain medications. From an initial sample of 1,334 members of the SSI panel, we identified 571 working age males who were out of the labor force (i.e., not employed or unemployed and not looking for work) at the time of the survey. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 156 members of the original sample in July 2017.
A more complete description of the survey results can be found in:
Krueger, A.B., 2017. Where have all the workers gone? An inquiry into the decline of the US labor force participation rate. Brookings papers on economic activity, 2017(2), p.1.